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Authors: Prof. Robin Williams and Gigi Williams

Biomedical applications: Ophthalmology

Application Notes Reference
Cloudy cornea
Brown iris
Showed that a cloudy cornea could be penetrated by using Agfa Rapid Infrared plates and commented on remarkable detail in brown iris in the infrared record. Dekking 1933, 1944
Fundus, cloudy cornea and lenses Published many examples of fundus infrared photographs and commented that although results were mostly disappointing in terms of poor detail and low contrast, the infrared technique did offer the prospect of penetrating cloudy corneas or lenses. Kugelberg 1934
Penetration of corneal opacity Reported on Dekking's results and showed several disorders of the eye eg., corneal dystrophy, dense corneal leukoma, dense corneal opacity, cataracts and parenchymatous keratitis, taken using a red filter on IR plates stereoscopically. Mann 1935
Penetration of corneal opacity Showed that infrared was valuable for ophthalmic applications in determining the size, shape and location of the pupil in dense corneas so that the surgeon could advise on corneal transplantation in leukomatous cornea. Also showed penetrating cornea in interstitial keratitits, sclerosing keratitis, pannus in trachoma and leukoma. Feldman 1936
Pupil size Showed the value of infrared photography in the measurement of pupil change in night myopia. Chin & Horne 1956
Opaque cornea Discussed the superiority of the use of an infrared image converter tube for examining the eye over the infrared photographic record. Ogg 1958
Fundus Assessed the use of colour infrared photography of the ocular fundus. Although it did provide partial penetration of the cloudy cornea and increased contrast in pigmented tumours, he concluded that this technique was not helpful in classifying lesions. Dallow 1974
Cloudy cornea
Conjunctival pigmentation
Iris change
Reviewed the use of colour infrared in ophthalmology and presented several applications including pupilography, records of iris change, conjunctival pigmentation, penetration of cloudy cornea. Presented a table of colours expected for various subjects. Cubberly 1976


  • Chin, N. & Horn, R., 1956. "Infrared skiascopic measurements of refractive changes in dim illumination and in darkness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46 (1):60-66.
  • Cubberly, M., 1976. "Infrared photography as a diagnostic tool in ophthalmology," J. Biol. Photogr. Ass. 44(3):80-85.
  • Dallow, R., 1974. "Color infrared photography of the ocular fundus," Arch Ophthalmol. 92:254-258.
  • Dekking, H., 1933. "Infrarot photographie des auges," Graefes. Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 130:373-374.
  • Dekking, H., 1934. "Infrarotphotographie des auges II. Mitteilung. Das pigment," Arch. Ophth. 133:20-25.
  • Feldman, J., 1936. "A review of infrared photography with reference to its value in ophthalmology," Arch. Ophthalmol. 15:435-442.
  • Kugelberg, I., 1934. "Der Augenhintergrund in infraroten licht," Acta Opthalmologie 12:179-193.
  • Mann, W., 1935. "Infrared photography of the eye," Arch. Ophthalmol. 13:985-991.
  • Ogg, A., 1958. "Examination of the eye with infrared radiation," Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 42:306-310.

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Last modified: 3 May 2002